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London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine Malaria Centre

Malaria research in vector studies

An experimental hut evaluation of PermaNet® 3.0, a deltamethrin–piperonyl butoxide combination net, against pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes in southern Benin.

LSHTM investigators:
Raphael N’Guessan, Alex Asidi & Mark Rowland.
External collaborators:
P Boko, A Odjo, M Akogbeto, O Pigeon.
Funding body:
Vestergaard Frandsen.

PermaNet 3.0 is a long-lasting combination net with deltamethrin present on the sides and a mixture of deltamethrin and piperonyl butoxide (PBO), an oxidase synergist, on the top panel.

An experimental hut trial comparing unwashed and 20 times washed PermaNet 3.0 and PermaNet 2.0, Olyset Net and a conventional deltamethrin-treated net washed three times was conducted in southern Benin. Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus from this area are highly resistant to pyrethroids through kdr and cytochrome P450 mechanisms. The unwashed PermaNet 3.0 killed slightly more A. gambiae (52%) than the unwashed PermaNet 2.0 (44%) (P=0.036), indicating only partial synergism of resistance. After washing there was significant loss of activity to a similar level, with PermaNet 3.0 killing 31%, PermaNet 2.0 killing 29% and the conventional net killing 26%. Blood-feeding rates were partially inhibited for unwashed PermaNet 3.0 and Olyset Net (27% inhibition). Personal protection against A. gambiae derived from PermaNet 3.0 was similar to that from PermaNet 2.0 before washing (50% vs. 47%), and after 20 washes it decreased to 30%. Against C. quinquefasciatus, no treatment killed >24% entering the huts. The synergism from unwashed PermaNet 3.0 was lower than expected, probably due to an unidentified resistance mechanism unaffected by PBO.